3.0 Basic Functions
This section describes the basic funtions of the Eyeglasses Inventory program as of version 5.  Click here to see the entire online documentation for version 6.1-6 of this program.
The data entry area of the screen varies based upon your option settings.  Figures 1 and 2 show the data entry area when you choose to use an autorefractor (1) and when you use a Focometer (2).
Click on items in the below list to go directly to different feature descriptions .
Basic Functions
Autorefractor Functions
    Autorefractor Data Capture.
    Autorefractor Automatic Search
    Autorefractor Confidence Level.
    Autorefractor Measurement History.
Focometer Functions
     Focometer calculator function.
     Focometer Reads no Astigmatism.
     Focometer Reads patient Astigmatism.
     Focometer Lines and Angles.
AddRemove from inventory
Search and Inventory Fields
    Cut-Back Rules
Blind in one eye.
     Rejected Item Report
     Deleted Item Report
Reject Pair
Print Button
Retrieval Picklist
Search by Gender
Age Estimation of Reading Power / Add
Mathematics of the Sort.

 Basic Functions          Back
   The Eyeglasses Inventory program plays the roll of a calculator for the Focometer and also provides inventory control for Prescription Eyeglasses, Reading glasses, and Round lens and frames.  Additionally with version 3 it was interfaced to a Nikon Retinomax 2 autorefractor.  Version 4 added connection to 2 other autorefractors (Welch Allyn Suresight and Marco Nidek ARK-20/30).  Version 5 provides sorting capabilities for the picklist along with the ability to search glasses by gender.
   The program also provides an advanced search capability for prescription eyeglasses.  The program installs a test inventory and journal file but you can replace these with your own files later.  Go to 8.0 Inventory/Journal files setup for information about the format of this file.  Click here to see an initial startup window for the program.  Various sections of the window are referenced below.

 Autorefractor Functions       Back

 Autorefractor Data Capture      Back
The autorefractor is cabled to the PC through the serial port or through a serial to USB adapter.  This connection allows the operator to measure a patient's eyes, press a PRINT button and transfer this measurement to the PC.  When the data is captured, a special data capture window appears (Figure 3) filled in with the information from the autorefractor.  The same information is filled into the data entry area of the main window (Figure 4).  

 Autorefractor Automatic Search      Back
In Figure 3 if the Enable Automatic Search checkbox of the window is clicked then an automatic search is performed and the search window is presented as you see in Figure 5.

 Autorefractor Confidence Level.      Back
     The confidence level is a number which is generated by the Nikon or Righton autofractor which indicates the level of confidence the instrument has in the last reading which has been made.  This is a number from 1 to 10 where 10 is the highest confidence level possible.  Typically the operator should strive for a confidence level of 9 or 10 and only after trying several times, accept something less.
     When the autorefractor has been purchased without a specially designed autorefractor printer (Figure 6), the front bottom of the hand held unit is directly cabled to the serial port of the PC.   In this case the data capture windows appears as shown in Figure 7 showing two manual entry fields for the confidence levels.  
     For entry of these confidence levels to be possible, the Enable Automatic Search checkbox must be unchecked to cause the window to pause until you click SEARCH.  This confidence level is read from the viewfinder (see Figure 8) of the autorefractor and is then entered into this data capture window.   When SEARCH is clicked this window disappears and you will see the data entry field as shown in Figure 9.  You will also see the search results window as shown in Figure 10.
Autorefractor Measurement History.   Back
Version 7.1-1 of the program (Figure 35) records previous measurements of the autorefractor along with the person number, age and date/time of measurement.  These can then be re-inserted into the program at a later time to attempt to find more and different glasses.

      Focometer Functions       Back
(Graphics from version 5.0-6 of program)

 Focometer calculator function         Back
     When the Eyeglasses Inventory program is activated with focometer capabilities enabled (as shown in Options Section), it displays in the top left quadrant the screen shown in Figure 11 to the left.   When a focometer is read, it is possible for a person to have Astigmatism or not.  If the person has no astigmatism, one need only make data entry in the "Sphere" field which is a duplicate of the field with a "1." to the left and "Reading" above.  To enter data for the right eye click into the "Right" area and begin entry.

 Focometer Reads no Astigmatism.         Back
     Let's take a simple case.  Assume the patient has no Astigmatism in either eye so the program operator enters:  "3.75" for the Left eye, and "4.25" for the right eye as shown in Figure 11.  To discover what inventory is available for this person, the operator clicks the "SEARCH" button and he will see Figure 12 as a response.   Notice that 136 matches were made.   If the operator wants to get a more refined response (one closer to the requested prescription), he can click on the "D/4" (meaning "Default divided by 4") and then click on "SEARCH" and he will see Figure 13 as the response.  Note that only 9 matches have been found.  Clicking "Default*2" gives 22 matches which are not quite as close the the one shown in Figure 12.

 Add/Remove from inventory         Back
     Assume you look at Figure 13 and decide that you want to use glasses pair number 316.  First you should change the person indicator to be the right number (See Figure 14) from their arm band.  You can just click on line 316 and you will see Figure 15 as a response.  Click Remove Pair and the inventory is removed.  Click Cancel and the request is ignored allowing you, perhaps, to change the person number or select another pair of glasses.

     While showing the search response (Figure 13) one can click "Refresh Persons List" (Figure 7) to see the list of people who have already received glasses, and "Clear and Reload all Inventory" (Figure 16) to see the master prescription inventory.  

Suppose you want to return glasses number 11 used by person number 61 (see figure 16) to the inventory.  Click on the first line in this figure and you will see figure number 17 as the response.  Click Return Pair and the glasses are back in inventory.

     When you return to use the calculate function, click "CLEAR" to clear the calculator for entry of the next patient.  Before clearing the calculator, if you would like to save this prescription in the journal file, click the "Prescription Save" button.

 Focometer Reads patient Astigmatism.    Back
     If the patient has astigmatism, then the process of providing glasses is a bit more complex.  When the patient has astigmatism then the Focometer target might at first show what we see in Figure 18 at the top (lines 11 to 5 are darkest).  In this case the computer operator would enter as shown in Figure 20.  The first line number is entered along with the reading from the Focometer.  Notice how the program automatically enters the second expected perpendicular line number.  The patient continues to turn the Focometer until he/she sees the bottom half of Figure 19 where line number 2 is clear and the rest are blurred.  The operator then enters the second number into line number 2 position as shown in Figure 21.  The operator then enters the right eye reading as shown in Figure 22.  Note that the reading might have no astigmatism or might have different astigmatism as shown.  The operator will then click "CALCULATE" and sees Figure 23.
     In order to find an appropriate pair of glasses the operator clicks the "SEARCH" button and sees Figure 24.  Notice that 12 matches were found and all of them are marked "-Equiv".  This is because there was no match of the astigmatism in the database so the system is suggesting that you try a "Spherical Equivalent" in place of the exact astigmatic match.  Note that the calculator shown in figure 23 gives a Left/Right spherical equivalent (in parenthesis) of 5.38/4.88 respectively.  The list given in figure 24 is close to this.  If you click on "D/2" and "SEARCH", you will see the 3 item list showing in Figure 25. This tells you that 3 items are very close and the 12 entries given in Figure 24 are not as close.

Looking again at Figure 25 if there had been a match instead of seeing "-Equiv" you would see "-Match" instead.

 Focometer Lines and Angles.         Back
When entering the "Line Nr(s)" into the program the following table is used.  These line numbers are what the patient sees when he/she looks at the target that is  shown in Figure 19.  The actual target is Figure 3 at section: 1.0 Eyeglasses Inventory Program.
              Line #1
generates Line#2
For an Angle of

 Search and Inventory Fields         Back
   Referring to Figure 18 you will see the following columns of information in the "Left Eye Inventory" and also the "Right Eye Inventory" frames:
   Nr=  Number of the glasses selected.
  Sphere= Left or right Spherical value.
  Cylinder= Left or right Cylinder value.
  Axis = Left or right axis value
  Add = The bifolal add(itional) power.
  Add (Pwr) is two Fields of "Add" (as above) and also the "Reading Power" of the glasses which is a sum of the "Add" and the "Spherical equivalent" power.  The reading power is in parenthesis.
 PD= Pupillary Distance
 Reject #= Number of times pair of glasses were rejected by a patient.
FLAGS in parenthesis:
  S = Sunglasses.
  R = Reading glasses
  P = Progressive lens
  B = This is a pair of Bifocals.
  G = Gender on pair of glasses F= Female, M= Male, E=Either and C= Child.

  Referring to Figure 24 you will see much the same type of information on the glasses.
  # = Number on the sort order of the glasses from 0.0 to 9.9.  Greater than 9.9 shows up as XX.  The smaller the number, the closer the match.
     Flag contains either "-Equiv" or "-Match" indicating whether glasses were selected either by Spherical equivalent or a match within tolerances.

 Cut-Back         Back
    Referring again to Figure 24 you will see both on the left and right side the following two buttons:
  Cut-Back & Search =  This reduces the cylinder by the amount set in 6.0 Option Settings and and redoes the search.  It adjusts the Cylinder to maintain the exact same spherical equivalent.  These modifications show up in Figure 26 and each cutback count is the "Left/Right Cut-Back Count" variable showing in Figure 27.  Notice that there is also a Cut-Back BOTH and Search button.
  Reset Cut-Back = This will return the values originally showing in Figure 26 and set the "Left/Right Cut-Back Count" to zero.  Notice that there is a also a Reset BOTH Cut-Backs button.
   Using "Cut-Back" can allow you to find a satisfactory match for the patient when otherwise none could be found.  Realize that Cylinder never drops beyond zero.

 Cut Back Rules.         Back
These are very important rules which you should remember.
1) High Cylinder or high astigmatism is defined as anything higher than 1.5-2.0.
2)  Cut back the cylinder by at least 1/2 if the astigmatism is high.
3)  Do not cut back the cylinder if it is less than 1.5.
4)  Patients who have never worn glasses feel dizzy if you give them a pair which fully match their cylinder as measured by an autorefractor.  This is why you use cut-back.

 Blind in one eye.         Back
Sometimes a patient will be blind in one eye.  If so, the best you can do is find a very good match for the other eye.  The Eyeglasses Inventory program has the ability to handle this problem.

Suppose you enter the data as shown in Figure 26.  Notice that you entered a prescription for the left eye and click on BLIND in the Right eye.  Click on  the "SEARCH" button and you will see Figure 27.  Notice how the right eye is identified as "BLIND Eye."

Using this function to match on just one eye allows you to match glasses to a one eyed patient where otherwise you would not even find a match.

 Reports        Back
In the top/left of the screen you will see the reports function as shown in figure 28.  If you click on this function you will see a choice of 2 different type of reports:  1) Deleted Item Report and 2) Rejected Item Report.  

If you click on " Deleted Item Report" you will get a notepad window with a report as shown in figure 29.  This is a list of all pairs of glasses which have been deleted from the system.

If you click on " Rejected Item Report" you will get a notepad with a report with a window as shown in figure 30.   The rejected items are those items which have been removed from intentory and tried with a patient. The patient has rejected this pair of glasses likely for one of the following reasons:
The measurement entered for the glasses was not entered correctly.
The glasses were not measured correctly but were entered as written on the bag.
The pair is too large or small for the patient (improper PD) and will likely work with another patient.
It the problem is one of the first 2 reasons below the glasses will continue to accumulate reject count and should eventually be removed and remeasured.  If the problem is the 3rd one then likely some other patient will use the glasses.

To reject a pair of glasses click on a line of inventory as shown either in figure 24 search window or figure 18 inventory window and you will see a window like figure 15 but in this case you click on  Reject Pair instead of Remove Pair.

When a pair is rejected, you may see something like is currently showing in the search window in Figure 31.  As you can see the rejection counts are circled.  If you click the  Print Button you will see a printout like Figure 32.  

Notice that the first column is the sort order, the second is the location number, the third is the reject count and the last indicate Gender-Bifocal (F-B = Female and Bifocal).

The first line is the patient number, the second and 3rd is the prescription, and the 4th is the measurement Criteria.

 Retrieval Picklist       Back
This printout can be used as your picklist to hand to a person within the clinic who is looking for pairs of glasses for the patient.
Figures 33 through 39 show numerous samples of this picklist printout.

 Search by Gender       Back
Figure 40 shows a section identified "Gender".  If you click on any of these selection, the match will be made based upon this selection.  For example, "Don't Care" will not consider gender.  "Either M/F" will select Male, Female, or Either choices, and Female, Male, or Child will select the indicated gender.

 Age Estimation of Reading Power / Add         Back
In Figure 41 if you enter an age into the screen and click Set Reading and Add Powers the program will automatically fill in the reading power and the estimated ADD.  This information comes from the Option Setting screen showing in 6.0 Option Settings in Figure 2.  It also automatically clicks on the ALSO option as shown in Figure 42.  When you search for glasses, it will now match on the reading power also.

 Mathematics of the Sort.       Back
Look at figures 43 and 44.  The patient prescription is:
Eye    Sphere    Cylinder Axis
Left       -0.50          -1.25      179
Right     -0.50           -.25       168
The first choice made is pair number 1041.  Notice that the sort number is 1.6  Here is how that was calculated.
Left Eye
   (0.50-1.25)/.25 = 3
   (1.25-.75)/.25 = 2
   (179-175)/2    = 2
   Average =            7/3 = 2.3
Right Eye
   (0.50-1.00)/.25 = 2
   (0.50-0.25)/.25 = 1
   (168-168)/2      = 0
   Average =         = 3/3 = 1
Right and Left Eye average of averages = (2.3 + 1)/2 = 1.65
 rounds down to 1.6
The Eyeglasses Inventory program uses this procedure to create one number for the pair of glasses which represents how close the pair matches the patient's prescription and then uses that number in the sort of the search list.

Go to 4.0 Reading Glass Inventory to understand how the reading inventory section operates.